The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The Environment Council has adopted conclusions that define the EU`s position for the UN climate change conference to be held in Paris. Ministers agreed that the EU intends to reach an ambitious, legally binding and dynamic agreement to keep global warming below 2oC. Negotiations on the Paris regulatory framework at COP 24 proved to some extent to be more difficult than those that led to the Paris Agreement, as the parties faced a range of technical and political challenges and, in some respects, applied more to the development of the general provisions of the agreement through detailed guidelines. Delegates adopted rules and procedures on mitigation, transparency, adaptation, financing, periodic inventories and other Paris provisions. However, they have failed to agree on rules relating to Article 6, which provides for voluntary cooperation between the parties in the implementation of their NDCs, including by applying market-based approaches. Many countries have stated in their INDCs that they intend to use some form of international emissions trading scheme to implement their contributions. In order to ensure the environmental integrity of these transactions, the agreement requires the parties to respect accounting practices and to avoid double counting of “mitigation results transferred internationally.” In addition, the agreement will create a new mechanism that would help contain and support sustainable development and could produce or certify negotiable emission units according to its design. Representatives of the Presidency of the Council and the European Commission have tabled the official ratification documents with the SECRETARy-general of the United Nations, who is the custodian of the agreement. Developed countries have committed, under the UNFCCC, to support containment and adaptation efforts in developing countries. Under the Copenhagen and Cancun agreements, developed countries have pledged to mobilize $100 billion in public and private financing per year for developing countries by 2020.
In the run-up to the Paris climate change conference, the EU presented its planned national contribution (INDC) to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The EU`s INDC expresses the EU`s commitment to the negotiation process for a new legally binding agreement on climate change to keep global warming below 2oC. It also reaffirmed the binding target of reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, as indicated by the conclusions of the European Council in October 2014. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The aim is to create a continuous cycle that prevents countries from increasing their ambitions over time. In order to encourage increased ambitions, the agreement defines two interconnected processes, each with a five-year cycle. The first is a “comprehensive state of affairs” to assess the collective progress made in achieving the long-term goals of the agreement. The parties will then submit new NDCs “informed of the results of the global inventory.” On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other governments have strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the Agreement. U.S.
cities, states and other non-state actors also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and promised to further intensify their climate efforts.